Some adaptations help the endurance of the human body, and one of the keys is the unique structure of the heart. Thus, scientists at the University of British Columbia compared the shape and performance of hearts in gorillas, chimpanzees, as well as representatives of four groups of people: long-distance runners; athletes playing American football; peasants engaged in the economy, and ordinary citizens who lead an inactive lifestyle.
The authors note that gorillas and chimpanzees, in general, are not too mobile and sleep a lot, although they are capable of incredible bursts of activity and power for us. Their hearts are adapted to such loads: they have thick muscular walls and a rounded shape. The human heart is more elongated – primarily by enlarging the left ventricle, which pumps oxygenated blood to the body.
Also, with each stroke, the human heart twists slightly, allowing you to pump more blood with each contraction, as well as more to enter it in the ventricle while relaxing between them. According to scientists, the hearts of monkeys are so incapable, as a result of their ability to pump blood is quite limited. But they are better adapted to sudden bursts of activity and work at high blood pressure.
The hearts of people who are not accustomed to physical activity, gradually lose many “human traits” become more rounded and twist while working not as noticeable as in chimpanzees. Moreover, such effects have also been found in football players who have been training for explosive power performance for years: the muscular walls of their heart become thicker, but the adaptations associated with endurance appear weaker.