Jim bride Stine couldn’t help but to pay tribute to the colleagues from the distance, plenty of recognition: “congratulations to China’s Chang’e-4 Team for a seemingly successful landing on the other side of the moon,” tweeted the Director of the American space Agency Nasa early Thursday morning. “It is a first for mankind and a more impressive performance!”
Congratulations to China’s Chang’e-4 team for what appears to be a successful landing on the far side of the Moon. This is a first for humanity, and an impressive accomplishment! pic.twitter.com/JfcBVsjRC8
— Jim bride Stine (@JimBridenstine) January 3, 2019
Previously, the message was gone to the world that it is the state – run Chinese space Agency, CNSA, as planned, to 3.26 p.m. our time, was succeeded, after a Chinese moon goddess named probe to depose, along with a Rover safely on the earth-facing side of the moon-and although, also according to plan, in the Of-Krámár crater, about halfway between the Equator and the South pole Aitken basin. The Region has a diameter of more than 2000 kilometers.
moon-back: communication only via detour
It was not the most important, that a probe touched down on the moon – this is accomplished frequently, you only have to think of the moon landings of the Americans in the 1960s and ‘ 70s, but that it happened on the so-called “dark side of the moon”. The reason: The moon as a solid object, the signal is blocked in this case, paths to earth, communication is only indirectly possible. In order to circumvent the so-called radio shadow, had sent to the CNSA, therefore, already at the end of may 2018, the 400-pound Relay satellite “Queqiao” (“bridge of the magpies”) to the moon and in Orbit stationed that signals can be sent on this detour from the earth to the moon and back and Vice versa. So after landing published first “Chang’e-4”-photo from the back surface to the control center in Beijing.
So the communication between the back side of the moon and the earth runs with the help of the Relay satellite “Queqiao”.
©Planetary Society/the Public Domain
What seems like a simple Gimmick, is actually highly complex: All three parties involved in natural and artificial celestial bodies – the earth, moon, and the Relay satellite must stand on their rotation paths in close proximity, so that the communication work and the mitgelandete Rover can be controlled in the coming days. The landing itself took place, according to the state news Agency Xinhua, however, “completely automatic” – including a delicate, multi-minute sequence, in which the probe abtastete in around 100 meters in height, with Sensors in the landing place, to inspect briefly before Putting in the country. The reason: The far side of the moon is significantly more rugged than the side, as footage of Apollo 8 in 1968 from the orbit occupied. The probe could have lost it at the last Moment and it was only because they would not be turned over in rough terrain so unhappy that you have been for radio signals to reach, or not more controllable.
China – the new big Player in the space
Quite obviously, all the maneuvers were like clockwork. A striking proof of the enormous capacity of China in the space. “The Chinese have shown that they are ahead of the game,” said Ralf Jaumann, the moon, researchers at the German center for air and space travel (DLR), to the Deutsche Presse – Agentur (DPA) candidly. How on earth the previous top dogs in the United States and Russia is a real competitor to the grown-up (and Europe’s Esa seems to be in the face of such missions, in spite of the remarkable own successes rather like, even if potent, the Junior Partner). For all its technical precision enabled the Chinese to make “Chang’e-4” a symbolic point. The landing on the far side of the moon was, almost to the day exactly 60 years after the Russian probe “Luna 1” at the 4. January, 1959 the moon by 6000 km had missed and All was lost. Because progress for the Participants is almost palpable, for 60 years, not a long time in the space. After all, the very first recording of the “dark” of the moon managed to the Russians later, with “Luna 3”:
the first image of the far side of the moon by the Russian probe “Luna 3”, October 1959.
“The landing has a symbolic value,” says the Dortmund technology sociologist and space expert Johannes Weyer in conversation with the DPA. The Americans would have supplied in the past with the Russians in a Competition for supremacy in space – and won, as he says. Now the Chinese come in, “the show that you want to be makes a big technological” – and the symbolic are not to be satisfied. On the contrary, In the closely timed space-Plan the next Mission is already available. “Chang’e 5” should be this year, rock samples back to earth. 2030 land for the first time a Chinese on the moon, so that the taikonauts would make up this U.S. advantage. “I have already said in the past that China has an impressive space program”, Association of Esa-chief Jan Wörner its congratulations to the CNSA with an appreciation of colleagues from the middle Kingdom.
the race to source of energy Helium-3 Info “Dark side” of the moon Nasa
The so-called back of the moon has long been regarded as a mystery, because from the earth it is not visible. Permanently dark, the earth facing away from the page is not on our guard, therefore, but for a long time.
it is a fact that The moon revolves around the earth, and it rotates around its own axis. Both take exactly the same length, namely 27 days and seven hours – so less than a month long. And that is precisely why we always see the same side of the moon. Within this time, the sun is irradiated in turn all sides of the moon. At full moon the earth-facing side of the moon illuminated, at the new moon, the side facing away. Played millions of the year. Still noticeable the interaction between the earth and your companion by the tide.
dark side of the moon can be no question. As the source of the expression is a metaphor of the US writer Mark Twain (1835-1910), the following applies: “Everyone is a moon and has a dark side which he never shows to anybody.” To him it was a matter of the different facets of a character – and not to astronomy. (dho with DPA)
“Everything builds on each other,” said Ouyang Ziyuan a leading scientific adviser to the Chinese lunar programme, DPA. China think in the very long term, and also show interest in the raw materials on the moon – Helium-3. The isotope is almost legendary, for many years, the real miracle stories are told about the possible fuel for nuclear fusion power plants in the distant future. A fuel, which does not occur on earth, but supposedly all of earth’s energy problems for a long, long time. It does not take much imagination to imagine that the super powers make the extraction economically worthwhile, and the control over the possible Occurrence want to back up. The race to the moon is already up and running, and thanks to the “Chang’e”program, China seems to be quite far forward. In addition, the Chinese will have Mars in view, and by 2022, a space station operating.
This inevitably raises the question of co-operations and joint projects. The International space station has so far been understood as a humanity project, the crew breathed this spirit on the ISS outright – such as, most recently, the German Esa Astronaut and station Alexander commander Gerst made again. What if the greatest people of the earth, steps out of line, and it alone, is preferred? Hints that the Chinese are willing to cooperate, there are still. On the “Chang’e-4″probe, a measuring instrument of the University of Kiel with flew. The Team of Robert Wimmer-Schweingruber want to explore dangerous neutron radiation on the moon. And in the beginning of November, the CNSA reached an Agreement with the Russian Roscosmos against space debris – the garbage problem in the earth’s orbit is noticeably larger.
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succeeded another Problem: China’s space projects not only serve the Prestige and the scientific-technical development, to be followed clearly, and military interests. Military experts in China point out that future wars will be won in All. “Who shoots rockets into space, it can also threaten other countries. The need to always have in the back of the head,” says space expert Weyer. To 2018, China sent more rockets into space than any other Nation.
To the new military competition in All of the United States as a President Donald Trump for a long time. He has created a new military command with “Space Command”. And the US Congress has forbidden Nasa mutual cooperation with the Chinese counterpart, simply due to safety concerns. Not be ruled out that the Americans got on the moon. Or thing will be even more expensive than it is alleged to be anyway.
Between the minus 173 and plus 127 degree
First, however, the Chinese must prove themselves in the near future on the moon. There, the Lander and Rover “Chang’e-4”-Mission should now work under harsh conditions. During the lunar night, the 14 days on earth corresponds to, the temperature drops down to minus 173 degrees Celsius. During the lunar day, which lasts 14 days, is it up to 127 degrees. The instruments need to keep these level fluctuations and during the bright time enough energy to get through the dark time.
The trial of the cultivation of potatoes and of other plants, to be tried in the context of the current Mission, also, seems to be due to the bizarre. But who knows. Perhaps the Chinese are in this respect already one step ahead. It seems as though the taikonauts had come to stay on the moon. Therefore, Nasa’s chief bride Stine is likely to have his Twitter congratulations is not without Worries formulated.
with Material from / DPA / AFP