Since the beginning of July 1944, the officer Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg, was several times with his briefcase full of explosives on Hitler on the Obersalzberg, or in the wolf’s lair in East Prussia, 100 kilometers from the Russian Front. Always there were obstacles, he was not whistled by reluctant co-conspirators “back”, among other things, because of SS-leader Heinrich Himmler, and/or to Reich Marshal Hermann Göring, contrary to expectations, were present, should also be eliminated.

Until 20. July lit the bomb, and then only half of one of the two had brought explosives. On the other hand, the war had not can make the injured Stauffenberg, with only one Hand and only three fingers with a flat pair of pliers sharp.

according to the author Thomas Karlauf portrays the dramatic events surrounding the assassination in his new biography of the 75. Anniversary of the assassination, with a differentiated and partially critical view of the conspirators (“Stauffenberg – portrait of an assassin”, Blessing Verlag).

the direction of quarrel among the conspirators

explosives experts agreed today, writes Karlauf, that in the case of a double charge, none of those present would have survived in Hitler’s barracks in the “führer’s headquarters”. Five of the 24 attendees were fatally injured, others, and Hitler himself was only slightly, although his eardrum was damaged.

Operation Valkyrie

Claus von Stauffenberg: Who was the man who wanted to kill Hitler? The story of a transformation

in the Stauffenberg double function as an assassin “on the spot” and organizer, and thus important, “the General staff planners” of the coup, the researchers see a major flaw in the entire planning. But at the end of the coup, according to Karl failed to do not staunch resistance to the Nazi regime, but the resistance or the direction of the dispute in its own ranks with appropriate time delays between the military opposition and the civilian resistance groups around Carl Goerdeler and the other protagonists. The Karlauf describes with many Details.

Goerdeler, for example, put on a detachment of Hitler, by the Wehrmacht leadership. On the other hand, it had been Considerations of how to eliminate Hitler and to kill also.

a Lot of new the biography does not disclose

The new biography also goes into detail about the initial Hitler-followers and enthusiasm Stauffenberg and other conspirators about the first war is a success. A lot of New reveals Karlauf, however, the Nazi past of many of the resistance fighters, who played in the first postwar years in Germany, first of all, hardly a role that is not mentioned in the German resistance memorial center in Berlin’s bendler block and was, at the latest, to 60. The anniversary of the assassination attempt in 2004, addressed. The exhibition in the memorial of the documents is by the way an excellent “short version” of some of the lengthy books about the 20. July to place in 1944, and in particular school classes to heart, even if you could, perhaps, be something designed to be alive.

In the bendler block, the former Federal President Joachim Gauck at the age of 70. Anniversary of the assassination, recalled that there was in the 50s in the young Federal Republic, many of the men around Stauffenberg defamed furthermore, as a traitor to this country. “In the past, Adapted to swung to an unjust and defamatory judgment on those who have paid with their commitment against the dictatorship with life.”

What should come after Hitler?

The Conspirators stood at the time the dispute, the Central question was whether the “tyrant murder” in the 20th century. Century was at all justified and whether the German population suffer in spite of the heavy War behind it would be. Stauffenberg had come to the firm Conviction, so Karlauf, that a Regime had to be overthrown before you could put a better in its place.

p. m. questions & answers

Was Hitler and who were his heirs?

Henning von Tresckow, since 1941, in the resistance circuits active, and by many as the true heart and engine of the resistance against Hitler referred to, meant that Hitler had to be killed “like a mad dog, because he’s a danger to humanity”, as the then General staff officer, Rudolf-Christoph von Gersdorff in the 20th century. July-TV-docudrama “Operation Valkyrie”, 1971 (by Franz Peter Wirth with Joachim Fest) that reminded.

Despite all the concerns have ceased to be the relatively late time of the assassination, in the fifth year of the war, the mass murder, and Die, as it is the Wehrmacht officer and co-conspirator Philipp von Boeselager after the war, formulated.

Karlauf also describes in detail the Deliberations of the conspirators, what was planned for a “new Germany,” after Hitler, actually. In the prepared Call, should be disseminated to the coup, was of a “new order”, with law and justice for all Germans, the “restoration of the perfect Majesty of the Law” as the most important task of the new state, but also of “natural stands”. Stauffenberg had previously expressed the Belief that the Germans had the historical mission to lead Europe to rescue the Western heritage.

Up in the war, the same objectives

In the prepared “government statement” of the conspirators, for the period after the overthrow, which is to be read in the memorial to the German resistance in the bendler block as a facsimile, announced the immediate end to the “inhuman and relentless” persecution of the Jews, the concentration camps should be disbanded, and the guilty will be punished. Acts of war were used only for the “defence of the Fatherland” and “the Conquest and prestige need of a Maniac”. You refuse to “cowardly insults of the enemy,” because “real Christians” demand “tolerance towards other faiths”.

Karlauf goes into detail on the mental development and concurrent military career, Stauffenberg, a descendant Gneisenaus, in the time of Hitler. In the process, he loses himself sometimes a bit too much into military Details, including the description of the field trains in the Second world war. The Treaty and Hitler promoted the rearmament of Germany, new career opportunities opened adverse, especially to the younger year groups in the Wehrmacht, as the Reichswehr was the name of now.

Also had National up in the war years, the political objectives of the brothers Stauffenberg, with whom the socialists like the majority of the nobility and the military covered, emphasizing Karlauf. “In the army you avoided the word Republic where you could.” Also to the anti-Semitic measures, and finally pogroms of the Nazis to be handed down, not a single statement Stauffenberg, “the source-critical examination”.

Stauffenberg expected to apply as a traitor,

For Stauffenberg, the political responsibility of the General staff, but officer never up for discussion, emphasizes Karlauf. Thus, the action of other co-conspirators revealed the “Subalternity of the Supreme military commander, to see that Hitler’s Germany wants to tear into the abyss”.

The recognized had military leaders like Henning von Tresckow, of the should play a Central role in the military resistance against Hitler, soon. And Stauffenberg knew his own responsibility in the key position in the high command of the army and proved according to Karlauf “a high degree of consistency and nerves of steel”, and probably also in the consciousness that he is “as a traitor in the German history,” as Stauffenberg a few days before the assassination attempt is alleged to have said.

On the eve of the 20th century. In July 1944, the devout Catholic in our lady of the rosary Basilica in Berlin-Steglitz went. In the night of the 21. July, he was shot to death along with other conspirators in the courtyard of the bendler block in today’s stauffenbergstrasse stand legally. Stauffenberg was 36 years old. A total of about 200 co-conspirators and other resistance fighters in connection with the 20 fell. July, the Nazi justice to the victims.

Wilfried Mommert / ivi / DPA

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Teodora Torrendo is an investigative journalist and is a correspondent for European Union. She is based in Zurich in Switzerland and her field of work include covering human rights violations which take place in the various countries in and outside Europe. She also reports about the political situation in European Union. She has worked with some reputed companies in Europe and is currently contributing to USA News as a freelance journalist. As someone who has a Masters’ degree in Human Rights she also delivers lectures on Intercultural Management to students of Human Rights. She is also an authority on the Arab world politics and their diversity.