The “global Pact for a safe, orderly and regular Migration” is considered by many to praised. Conservative and national forces, but the mobile against the UN-paper, which is today by the community of States at a conference in Marrakech adopted.

What is the UN-migration Pact?

The impetus for development of global guidelines for better management of global Migration during the migration crisis of 2015. In July 2018, the in the German Translation of the 32-page document, the state at the time of the conference in Marrakech to the vote then. In short, it is the first comprehensive approach worldwide, on the Basis of which countries should cooperate against illegal and disorderly Migration and to make Migration safer for the people.

The formulated 23 goals also include approaches for in Germany, discussed problems: some of the causes of Migration are to be tackled in the countries of origin, as well as the smuggling of human beings. The border should be strengthened, and “irregular Migration” prevented, instead, safe and regular “crossings should be made possible”. A further aim of the relief is treated in a “dignified return” to the country of origin. To be the objectives of each specific action made proposals legally binding, the Pact is not.

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To promote the Pact of Migration?

no, from the adoption of this document, no new incentive for people, it can be deduced, to leave their homeland and seek a future somewhere else. Migration is, however, quite positive as a “source of prosperity, Innovation and sustainable development”. Their positive effects are to be used by the Pact better. At the same time the paper also deals with the problems and dangers of irregular Migration. The UN special representative for Migration, Louise Arbour, said the heated debates about: “Migration is an issue. It is not a bad theme, it is not a good topic, it is an issue.”

Why the scepticism is so great?

Although there is no legal binding to the 23 goals, and the Pact emphasized the existing sovereignty of the member States that fear a number of States to their national sovereignty. So could be from the guidelines may be customary law, the will become enforceable. The Federal government believes this argument to be very far-fetched. A concern of opponents is that the goals of higher Standards for the claims of migrants are also run in Germany. Proponents argue that these Standards in the Federal Republic of Germany are fulfilled anyway.

critics, especially national-conservative and right-wing populist parties, were, also, in your opinion, to positive image of Migration, which could develop the advertising effect.

migration expert Matteo Villa by the Italian Institute for international political studies political campaigns responsible for in the past few months, Fears over a seemingly uncontrollable Migration stoked. Populist leaders have boys in the document, a “perfect dick” for the national debates on Migration found.

Which countries stay out of the Pact?

governments of several countries have rejected the agreement. The USA were according to the UN, as the only one of the 193 member States of the negotiations, dropped out. After the UN General Assembly had agreed in July this year on a draft Treaty, was also attended by other countries of the planned rules. To Hungary, Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, Bulgaria, Australia, Slovakia and Israel.

Poland will send, unlike most of the other opponents – however, a Delegation to Marrakech. Switzerland and Italy will not be represented, because the governments in Berne and Rome want to let the parliaments decide. In Latvia the representatives of the people by a majority against the migration Pact.

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As the Federal government is the opposite of the Pact?

The Federal government considered the document as a managed. Foreign Minister Maas said at the end of November: “This Pact is also in the German interest.” German Chancellor Angela Merkel at the UN conference in Marrakech, will hold a speech. Also, the German Bundestag called for the rule to work. There, defended speaker of the Union, SPD, Greens, Left and FDP, the Pact against criticism of the AfD.

now, What happens in Marrakech?

The conference is primarily for the formal adoption of the migration Pact. After the adoption of the decision goes back for final approval at the UN in New York. In Marrakech, there will also be a series of discussions and dialogues about the way in which the migration Pact in the future, to the best of his power can unfold. It is also about the voluntary implementation of the guidelines into national law.

What is the Definition of a Migrant is actually?

migrants according to the Definition of the International organization for Migration (IOM) all the people who leave their place of residence – no matter for what reasons, for how long, or whether voluntarily or involuntarily. The UN counted around the world by 2017 258 million migrants. Most of them are in Asia and Europe. More than 60 000 people have died, according to the IOM since 2000, on your travels or in captivity.

What is the meaning of the Pact for refugees?

For refugees have developed in the member States of the United Nations in parallel with a “Global Pact for refugees”, the UN refugee Commissioner will include in his annual report to the General Assembly. He should ensure that refugees receive better access to health and education, and their livelihoods, and even the best can ride.

And how could the migrants benefit from the Pact?

you need to be better against human rights violations and exploitation are protected. This applies, for example for harvesters from North Africa, the harvest in southern Spain, tomato, and fruits. And for desperate people from developing countries, the debt in the case of employment agencies. Also for domestic workers from Southeast Asia, which your employer likely to fall in the Arab States of the Gulf, the passports, the Pact is a document of hope. However, How compliance with the principles set out in the document to be checked, not fixed yet.

speech in the Bundestag

Merkel: migration Pact “is the correct answer attempt to solve global problems”

DPA, What will change after the conference in the field of migration policy?

Since the Pact is also for the receiving countries legally binding, it must have at the national level no direct impact on the policy or the hand of the Migration. The objectives can be implemented in any national law, but must. The rule is intended to have its force, as in the case of other agreements – on the political loyalty of its members. The UN insists that the same Standards in the future, a better international cooperation on Migration is possible.

The Federal government hopes that the UN Pact will also bring about States that don’t care so far to the rights of migrants, to change their national legislation. Thus, in the long term, migration could decrease pressure in the direction of Western Europe. There is no guarantee. In addition, the improved display of identity could prove, in developing countries, in the case of deportations from Germany to help. How effective the measures agreed against the tractor, must be seen.

Benno Schwinghammer and Margret scholtyssek, who is / DPA