A prolonged stay in space does not seem to affect the health and the physical condition of astronauts in a sustainable way.
This was a comparison between astronaut Scott Kelly, who had lived for nearly a year on the International space station, ISS, with his on the earth’s surviving twin brother, Mark. According to the US space Agency, Nasa, most of the differences that appeared during the period of time in All were gone, after the completion of the Mission, such as changes in the gene activity. The results of the twin study are published in the journal “Science”.
Between March 2015 and February 2016 Scott Kelly ISS for almost a whole year on the International space station. After that, he went into retirement, he continues to work on the research to its mission. In comparison with this time on the floor remained, a few minutes older twin brother, Mark, also an Astronaut, now retired, want to explore the scientist, as a long stay in space affects the people. These findings are important for future planned manned missions to Mars.
the results of The current study, we have developed ten Teams consisting of more than 80 scientists spread over 12 universities. The twin study is unique: more than 550 people are on the whole already been to space, but only eight missions lasted more than 300 days. Scott Kelly remained 340 days. He and Mark Kelly are the only identical astronauts-twins. Before, during, and after the one-year Mission, the two were examined again and again.
In All, people are exposed to, among other things, the weightlessness and radiation. How this will impact exactly on the body and how long any changes will remain in place, however, is largely unclear. In his last year in German-published book “Endurance. My year in space” had Scott Kelly described that he had felt after returning as an old man, with cruel pain skin in the swollen legs, Nausea and burning.
With Scott, Kelly, developed All of, among other things, the activity of genes differently than its twin brother on the earth, we are now in the study. Especially genes associated with the immune system were affected. The changes are comparable with those produced under Stress, such as when mountain climbing or scuba diving. The structure of the genes themselves remained unchanged. More than 90 percent of the gene activity developed within six months but again back to the Level before the Mission.
To the Surprise of the researchers grew up in the All in Scott Kelly the telomeres – protective caps at the Ends of chromosomes. Changes in the telomere length to be associated with aging processes, and diseases. Also in this case, most of the changes disappeared on the earth, some of Scott Kelly’s Telomeres are now shorter than before.
in Addition, Scott Kelly’s eyeball changed, among other things, a nerve in the network of the skin is thicker. Also, the mental performance declined in some areas. These changes could, however, may not be only due to the stay at All, the authors of the study to Francine Garrett-Bakelman, of the Weill Cornell Medicine (New York).
reports, such As the scientist, a flu vaccination at All the same as on earth. And the intestinal flora is changed not more than this is also observed on earth under stress conditions.
The study was completed, shared with the scientists. In a comment of the biologist Markus Löbrich Technical University Darmstadt indicates that the radiation exposure during a Mars Mission is significantly higher than in the case of stays on the ISS. The health consequences are likely to be part of. This needs to be clarified in further studies, to develop strategies against it. Nevertheless, Löbrich commented, the study “is more than just a small step for mankind in this project”.