fear of war. It is not so long. The fear of war, this feeling of helplessness in the 80s, millions of people took to the streets to demonstrate against the nuclear armament of the superpowers USA and the Soviet Union. And today, the world again in the midst of a new arms race.
at the beginning of the 80s it seemed that there was no Escape from the Cold war. The Soviet Union had hundreds of land-based SS-20 medium-range missiles in Western Europe. Nato and the USA had stationed Pershing-II missiles in the Federal Republic of Germany, especially the divided Germany would be the battlefield of a nuclear war.
they were nervous, very tense times. However, how serious the situation really was, it was only years later known.
On 8. December 1987 Politburo chief Gorbachev (li signed.) and US President Ronald Reagan to the Treaty on the destruction of all land-based intermediate-range missiles.
©Bob Daugherty / AP, DPA, the Kremlin was of nuclear first strike in the USA
convinced The US secret services were at least as good as unaware of how firmly the Soviet leadership was convinced that a nuclear first strike on the USA was imminent. The Nato rail-large-maneuver “Able Archer” in November 1983, in the Federal Republic of men in the former Politburo camouflage for the planned nuclear attack. Fear of war, in the Kremlin limited to hysteria.
“never since the end of the Second world war, the situation in the world was as explosive as in the first half of the 80s”, it was Mikhail Gorbachev later. A happiness that he was moved to the top of the Politburo. He summed up the courage to separate themselves from the enemy. And found in the then U.S. President Ronald Reagan, a Partner who – terrified by the TV movie “The Day After” about a nuclear Apocalypse, in turn, dared the Treaty on the destruction of the country led in December 1987, the INF-based nuclear medium-range missiles-confidence. This agreement was as simple, complex truth of the atomic age based on: “A nuclear war cannot be won and must never be fought.”
questions and answers
INF-contract ends: The doomsday clock is nearing 12
DPA INF Treaty – a Symbol of the era of arms control
The INF Treaty was the Symbol of a new era, the “Golden age” of arms control. It was the first – and so far only – nuclear disarmament agreement, which really led to the destruction of weapons, out of a total of 2692 land-based medium-range missiles. In every Detail of the inspections worked in up to then highly secret military installations accompanied by the implementation of the “Special verification Commission was established” SVC for contentious issues. Also you will probably be soon history.
In the Wake of the INF agreement, the agreement on disarmament of conventional weapons in Europe (CFE) was possible, the new Start agreement in 1991 and the New Start agreement between the United States and Russia on further reduction of nuclear warheads in the year 2010. But above all, the INF Treaty, which is the effort that is required, which is the patience and the confidence-building measures proved to secure in the nuclear age each other to Survive.
Now the entire disarmament
shaking All of that is now also in ruins, as the INF agreement. From Russia broken, from the USA to the 2. August announces, there are now also officially out. Weeks ago, the Russian Parliament adopted a law on the suspension of the Treaty. President Putin announced that Russia will now develop a mobile launcher for a land-based medium-range missiles.
Already, one speaks in the case of the Western allies from an Era Post-INF, if you want to manage “the collapse”. In two years, pending renewal of the New Start agreement is questionable. Even the last pillar of nuclear arms control falters: the non-proliferation Treaty NPT, the 190 States have signed. The commit themselves to the renunciation of nuclear weapons if the nuclear powers disarm themselves of nuclear.
In Germany, you want to have, it is not true
and Yet, in Germany, once the center of a powerful peace movement, you don’t want to have it, apparently, is still true: has started that long since a new nuclear arms race. “The dangers of new arms races are almost falling completely out of the focus of the Public”, not surprised in the SPD group Chairman Rolf hat. “So trade and investment partnership (TTIP) took action against the transatlantic free hundreds of thousands on the streets, the impending upgrade of lures, only some of the Easter marchers for demonstrations.”
This massive nuclear modernization are launched for years of the programs, especially in Russia and the United States, over 90 percent of all nuclear weapons have. Although the number of nuclear weapons in 2018 declined, mainly because the United States and Russia discarded old weapons. And also in all other nuclear States, the arsenals are upgraded. A leading example in the development of several nuclear warheads bestückbarer medium-range missiles: China.
China anyway, no INF Treaty partners
granted Arms control The new nuclear big date, a cancellation – this is also a reason for the end of the INF agreement, which binds alone Russia and the USA. To all the new weapons, all the new battle fields: the Hyper sound systems, new conventional weapons as well as Cyber and Autonomous weapons systems, controlled by artificial intelligence, information wars, anyway.
Pride of the Russian President reported on the development of a hypersonic long-range missile, designed to fly up to ten times the speed of sound; soon a new Generation of gigantic inter-continental is to be put missiles in service. With such a sure-fire second-strike capability, Putin puts his country on a par with the United States.
disarmament Pact between the United States and Russia
Since today it is no longer true – as the history of the INF Treaty changed the world
By Marc Drewello USA even under Obama arsenals
In the United States modernized, it began already under Barack Obama, with extensive modernisation of nuclear arsenals. This also includes high-precision accuracy were nuclear warheads with comparatively small explosive force: “Low-yield”nuclear weapons, can be used in a regional conflict, a supposedly feasible “limited nuclear war”.
but the US could be a strategy of “extended deterrence” obsolete, the last of reinsurance for Europe. According to her, the US President in the nuclear case, Washington riskieren, to defend Berlin or Riga. “The great powers would not commit suicide for their allies,” stated U.S. large-thinkers of Henry Kissinger some years ago. Therefore, the representatives of the since 2018 new U.S. nuclear strategy would have to be the United States of America, “limited and effective” nuclear strikes. This would serve the defense of the allies. And makes you in doubt to the field of battle.
Here is Trump follows, exceptionally, his predecessor
It is probably one of the few areas in which Donald Trump the policies of his predecessor, as follows: $ 1.2 trillion is to be invested in the next 30 years in the modernization and Expansion of nuclear forces; in the development of new seegestützter nuclear weapons, and a new land-based Cruise missile. Almost unheard the warning of former U.S. Senator Sam Nunn fades: “The United States and Russia are sleepwalking into a nuclear disaster.”
From Moscow says that the United States had the INF Treaty buried, only the last step in a whole series of hostile measures. To belong to the U.S. cancellation of the missile defense Treaty, ABM 2002, the Test of combat drones, but especially the institutions of the U.S. missile defense in Romania, and soon in Poland. Of their launchers Mk-41 is also offensive weapons against Russia could be fired. Allegations that the United States have not broken yet convincing, are not inspections allowed. The United States, says a high German Diplomat, could in this delicate question of the Western allies in the dark.
protesters called for 2017, the stop of nuclear proliferation and the withdrawal of nuclear weapons from Büchel in the Eifel region.
©Jörg Carstensen Picture Alliance Out of the INF Treaty by the two sides,
wanted no, Russia is responsible, in Washington and in the meantime, unanimously, also in the case of Nato, in Brussels, under the terms of the United States presented evidence in the case, remained a secret. For years, Putin may have broken the INF agreement. 64 cruise missiles of the type 9M729, Nato Code SSC-8 “screwdriver”, were stationed on four Russian military bases. According to U.S. intelligence information, the missile can fly more than 2000 kilometers, a clear threat to Europe. According to Russian information, it is sufficient, however, to a maximum of 480 kilometers, which remains just below the 500-km limit of the INF agreements.
Putin’s missile – a clear breach of the INF Treaty; the Trump in a lapidary phrase, announced the contract withdrawal of the United States – from both sides of the desired sequence. And a political point victory for Vladimir Putin, and his country once again as the innocent victim of American hegemonic aspirations. And also tried to split Nato politically.
New confrontation: The liberal order is broken
A new epoch of confrontation has begun: “Post-West”. Not only from the Russian perspective, the US-dominated liberal order is broken. The new “sovereign” leadership powers such as China, India and Russia carry to the grave the West. And the future lies in “Greater Eurasia”, a new super continent.
a dangerous time had Begun with “a high risk of War,” writes the advocate of Russian geostrategy, Sergei Karaganov. In a last desperate gasp, the USA wanted to win the global battle for this new, multi-polar world order: Not Russia, but “the U.S. are revisionist the revision!” With the strategy of “preventive deterrence” – with a massive upgrade – set Russia against the USA for the military.
However, not the territory of the United States, but the countries that American missiles are stationed, will be warned in the case of a military confrontation, “the object of destruction”, the Russian chief of the General staff Valery Gerasimov.