The United States has pulled back today, officially out of the INF Treaty for nuclear disarmament in the middle distance area. Had terminated President Donald Trump the agreement already in February, because it assumes that Russia is violating that agreement for years with a weapons system called the SSC-8 (Russian: 9M729). A little later, Moscow suspended the Treaty. After the termination, there was a six-month phase-in period, which is now finished.
With his withdrawal from the contract, Trump has completed a especially for Germany, the history of the disarmament policy. The history of the agreement had split the Federal Republic into the 1980s and dominated like no other political issue. You don’t and maybe still the Soviet Union hundreds of thousands on the street and breathed in the peace movement new life, without you there would be, possibly, the Greens.
INF stands for Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces to track German nuclear systems. In the Treaty, the United States and the former Soviet Union have agreed to waive the construction and the ownership of land-based, nuclear-armed cruise missiles and rockets with ranges of 500 to 5,500 kilometers.Under the agreement, which was signed on 8. In December 1987 by U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.
the Largest rally of the German story
The conclusion of the contract advance one of the most controversial decisions had been taken by the North Atlantic defense Pact, Nato had ever gone eight years earlier, Not least on the initiative of the then German Federal Chancellor Helmut Schmidt, the adopted Foreign and defence Ministers of the member States on 12. December 1979 in Brussels, the so-called Nato double-track decision. The Alliance of the USSR offered to negotiate the removal of the Western Europe-oriented SS20 missiles, the deployment of Moscow been in operation since 1976, progress. At the same time, Nato, the Soviet Union threatened, in the event of a failure of the talks, after four years, so by the end of 1983, self-atomic American medium-range missiles Pershing II and cruise missiles in Europe.
The Nato double-track decision, which arose from the Cold war, applied the logic of deterrence – thrust in a missile stationing affected Western European countries in many people resistance. Particularly in Germany, the fear of being the battlefield of a nuclear war sparked off protests in an unprecedented manner.
The after the world wars created, and since then, considerably shrunken peace movement grew rapidly. Hundreds of thousands protested with slogans like “Make Love Not war”, “peace without weapons”, “Petting instead of Pershing” or “Shoots the Reagan without the Express the Pershing II in the rear” against an “arms race” of super-powers. 22. October 1983 gathered more than 300,000 protesters to the largest rally in the history of the Federal Republic of Germany in Bonn’s Hofgarten, in order for peace and disarmament.In Germany, about 1.3 million people against the Nato double-track decision went that day on the road.
First, Gorbachev’s turn
brings The Greens, which were collected since the autumn of 1979 after the other, in more and more countries parliaments, grew on the breeding-ground of the peace movement to a successful nationwide competitor of Union, SPD and FDP. At the same time, the SPD experienced due to the Nato double-track decision is an ordeal. Parts of the party moving away from your Registrar. On 1. October 1982 finally broke the social-liberal coalition, and Helmut Kohl replaced Schmidt as Chancellor.
“Donald Trump begins the new Cold war”
The newly elected government made up of CDU/CSU and FDP agreed in November 1983, and finally, for the stationing of medium-range missiles in the Federal Republic of Germany. Only a day later, the USSR broke off disarmament talks. The efforts of the peace movement, peace camps, sit-ins and people in the retrofitting of chains to prevent to have failed: in the same year, the United States began with the stationing of Pershing-II missiles on German soil. The spiral of Arms race started up again.
First Mikhail Gorbachev, who had taken over in 1985 the Say in the Kremlin, entered the arms race back on the brake. Many trillions of dollars had been put in the East and the West in the Cold war in their armies and weapons systems. The enormous cost of the military apparatus, contributed their part to force the economy of the USSR in the knee and Gorbachev to the negotiating table – so that, in 1987, finally, the INF Treaty on eliminating intermediate-range weapons could be signed, the Donald Trump to terminate now threatens.
the INF Treaty as a Symbol of successful deterrence
In the years after the entry into force of the Treaty, the Soviet Union destroyed about 1,800 missiles, the United States, about 800. The last weapon systems were destroyed in may 1991. In the agreement, for the first time between the United States and the USSR agreed on possibility to on-the-spot inspections in may 2001 to the end of.
The INF Treaty was the first breakthrough in the struggle for disarmament. He paved the way for the Start Treaty, in the 1991 upper limits on nuclear weapons with longer range have been established. In addition, Washington announced, as well as Moscow in 1990 and 1991, unilaterally and without negotiations of thousands of nuclear weapons, the from Europe route to be deducted.
Many of the values of the INF agreement as a direct result of the Nato dual-track decision and see him as a Symbol of successful Western deterrence policy, which have finally led even to a new world order: “Without Nato would retrofit the story is likely to be different,” wrote the Tagesspiegel on 10. In October 2011, the 30. Anniversary of the big demonstration in Bonn’s Hofgarten. “Who knows whether, and when, without the Soviet defeat of communism and German unification would have succeeded.”
topics in this article, disarmament, United States Donald Trump Russia Soviet Union peace movement, Mikhail Gorbachev Nato double-track decision of Germany to Ronald Reagan’s Cold war SPD FDP