Robert Mugabe became prime minister of Zimbabwe in 1980 and served as president of the country from 1987 until his forced resignation in 2017.
Who is Robert Mugabe?
Robert Mugabe was born on February 21, 1924 in Kotama, South Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). In 1963, he founded the ZANU, a resistance movement against the British colonial government. After the fall of British rule in 1980, Mugabe became prime minister of the new Republic, and assumed the presidency seven years later. Mugabe maintained a strong control of power through controversial elections, until he was forced to resign in November 2017 at the age of 93.
Young years and education.
Robert Gabriel Mugabe was born on February 21, 1924 in Colma, southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), just a few months after Rhode Island became the British colony. As a result, people in their village faced new laws and restrictions on education and employment opportunities.
Mugabe’s father was a carpenter. He went to South Africa to work on a Jesuit mission when Mugabe was just a child, and never mysteriously returned home. Mugabe’s mother, a teacher, left to raise Mugabe and her three brothers on their own. As a child, Mugabe helped raise family cows and earn money through strange jobs.Although many in southern Rhodesia only attended primary school, Mugabe was fortunate to have a good education. He attended school at the local Jesuit Mission under the supervision of Father Oha, the school principal. A powerful influence on the boy, Oh taught Mugabe that all people must be treated equally and educated to fulfill their abilities. Mugabe’s teachers, who called them “smart guys,” quickly considered their skills.
The values Ohio gave its students resonated with Mugabe, which led him to become a teacher. For nine years, he studied privately in several missionary schools in southern Rhodesia. Mugabe continued his education at the University of South Africa, Fort Hare, graduating in 1951 with a degree in History and English. Mugabe then returned to his hometown to study there. By 1953, he obtained a bachelor’s degree in education through correspondence courses.
In 1955, Mugabe moved to northern Rhodesia. There, he taught for four years at Chaliambana Training College while working with the University of London to obtain a degree in economics through correspondence courses. After moving to Ghana, Mugabe completed a bachelor’s degree in economics in 1958. He also taught at St. Mary’s Teacher Training College, where he also met his first wife, Sarah Heffern, whom he would marry in 1961. In Ghana, Mugabe declared himself a Marxist , supporting the plan of the government of Ghana to provide equal educational opportunities to the previously designated lower classes.
Early political career
In 1960, Robert Mugabe returned to his hometown on vacation, with the intention of meeting his girlfriend with his mother. Unexpectedly, upon arrival, Mugabe faced a largely transformed southern Rhodesia. Thousands of black families were displaced by the new colonial government, and the white population had exploded. The government rejected the black majority rule, which resulted in violent protests. Mugabe was also fired for denying the rights of blacks. In July 1960, he agreed to address the crowd at the March 7,000 protest march held at Harare City Hall in Salisbury. The purpose of the meeting was to protest against members of the opposition movement over the recent arrest of their leaders. In response to police threats, Mugabe told protesters how Ghana successfully achieved independence through Marxism.
Only a few weeks later, Mugabe was elected public secretary of the National Democratic Party. According to Ghanaian models, Mugabe quickly formed a militant Youth League to spread this message about the achievement of black independence in Jaldiya. The government banned the party at the end of 1961, but the rest of the supporters together formed a movement that was the first of its kind in Rhodesia. The Zimbabwe African People’s Union (ZAPU) soon grew to a staggering 450,000 members.
The union leader, Joshua Nkomo, was invited to meet with the United Nations, which demanded that Britain suspend its constitution and take note of the issue of the majority government. But, as time went by and nothing changed, Mugabe and others were frustrated that Nkomo did not insist on a fixed date for changes in the constitution. His frustration was so great that in April 616161, Mugabe publicly discussed the start of a guerrilla war, even humiliating in front of a policeman, “We are taking over this country and we will not put up with this nonsense.”
In 1963, Mugabe and other former Nkomo supporters founded the African National Union of Zimbabwe (ZANU) in Tanzania. Later that year, in southern Rhodesia, police arrested Mugabe and sent him to Hua Hua prison. Mugabe will remain in prison for a decade, after being transferred from Huahaw Prison to Skembila Detention Center and then to Salisbury Prison. In 6464 prison In, while in prison, Mugabe relied on secret communications to launch a guerrilla operation to free southern Rhodesia from British rule.
In 1974, Prime Minister Ian Smith, who claimed he would win the real majority, but still declared loyalty to the British colonial government, was named in Mugabe, a city in Lusaka, Zambia (formerly North Rhodesia). Allowed to attend the conference On the Mugabe route, Rhodesian escaped by gathering a guerrilla squad, crossing the southern border of Rhodesia. The battles are underway in the 1970s. At the end of this decade, Zimbabwe’s economy was in a worse state than ever. In 1979, when Smith made a futile attempt to reach an agreement with Mugabe, the British agreed to monitor the change of the black majority government and the UN lifted the sanctions.
In 1980, Southern Rhodesia became independent from British rule and became an independent republic of Zimbabwe. After winning the elections against Mugabe Kumomo, acting under the banner of the ZANU party, he was elected prime minister of the new republic. In 1981, a fight broke out between ZANU and ZAPU on different agendas. In 1985, Mugabe was re-elected after the fight continued. In 1987, when a group of missionaries was tragically killed by supporters of Mugabe, Mugabe and Nkumo finally consolidated their unions in the Zano-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) and focused on the economic recovery of the country. In agreement
A week after the Alliance agreement, Mugabe was named president of Zimbabwe. He chose Nkomo as one of his chief ministers. Mugabe’s first main objective was to restructure and repair the country’s failed economy. In 1989, he planned to implement a five-year plan, reducing the price restriction for farmers, allowing them to nominate their own prices. In 1994, at the end of the five-year period, the economy had experienced some growth in the agricultural, mining and manufacturing industries. Mugabe manages to build clinics and schools for the black population. Meanwhile, Mugabe’s wife, Sarah, passed away, leaving her to marry her lover, Grace Marufu.
By 1996, Mugabe’s decisions had begun to cause unrest among the citizens of Zimbabwe, who once received them as heroes to lead the country towards independence. Many disliked the choice of the owners to support the occupation of whites’ land without compensation, which Mugabe insisted on excluding the black majority from voting rights in the economic courtyard. It’s the only way. Similarly, Mugabe citizens were also angry at Zimbabwe’s refusal to amend the constitution of a single party. Inflation was another turning point, which resulted in a strike for public officials to increase wages. The increase in salaries of government officials on their own only exacerbated public anger against the Mugabe administration.
Objections to Mugabe’s controversial political strategy have hindered his success. In 1998, when he appealed to other countries to donate money for land distribution, countries said they would not donate unless they already had someone to help Zimbabwe’s poor rural economy. You do not create a program. Mugabe refused and the countries refused to contribute.
In 2000, Mugabe approved an amendment to the constitution that Britain paid for the land it had occupied with blacks. Mugabe said that if they didn’t pay, they would take British land as compensation. The amendment further disrupted Zimbabwe’s foreign relations.
Still, Mugabe, a well-known conservative who wore colorful shirts on his face during his election campaign, won the 2002 presidential elections. The European Union imposed sanctions on Zimbabwe and other economic sanctions as a result of speculation that he had filled the ballot box. At that time the economic disaster in Zimbabwe was near. Famine, an epidemic of AIDS, external debt and widespread unemployment have affected the country. However, Mugabe was determined to maintain his position and did whatever it took to get votes in the 2005 parliamentary elections, including alleged torture and corruption.
Refusal to Cede Power
On March 29, 2008, when he lost the presidential elections before the opposition leader Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) Morgan Tansigarai, Mugabe did not agree to leave the House and demanded a new count. There would be a second electoral round in June. Meanwhile, opposition supporters were violently attacked and killed by opposition members of the Mugabe opposition. When Mugabe publicly announced that while he was alive, he would never allow Susangeirai to govern Zimbabwe, Suswangirai concluded that the vote in favor of Mugabe would be lost by the use of Mugabe’s power. And withdrew.
Mugabe’s refusal to hand over presidential power led to another violent outbreak that injured thousands of people and killed 85 Susingari supporters. This September, Mugabe and Susangeirai agreed to an energy distribution agreement. Determined to always be in control, Mugabe managed to retain much of the power by controlling the security forces and selecting leaders for the most important positions in the ministry.
At the end of 2010, Mugabe took additional measures to take total control of Zimbabwe by electing temporary governors without consulting Taswanirai. An American diplomatic cable indicates that Mugabe will fight against prostate cancer next year. The accusation raised public concern about the military coup in the case of Mugabe’s murder. Others expressed concern about the possibility of a violent civil war within the ZANU-PF if candidates try to compete to become Mugabe’s successors.
The 2013 elections
On December 10, 2011, at the National People’s Conference in Bulawayo, Mugabe officially announced his candidacy for the presidential elections of Zimbabwe 2012. However, the elections were postponed, as both parties agreed to a new constitution and reformed it for 2013 The people of Zimbabwe presented a new document in March 2013, supporting the constitution referendum, although many believe that the 2013 presidential elections will suffer corruption and violence.
According to a Reuters report, representatives from around 60 civic organizations across the country complained about strong measures against Mugabe and his supporters. In criticizing Mugabe, the members of these groups were subjected to threats, arrests and other forms of persecution. There was also the question of who could oversee the voting process. Mugabe said he would not allow Western citizens to supervise any of the country’s elections.
In March, Mugabe traveled to Rome for the inaugural meeting of Pope Francis, named after the papacy. Mugabe told reporters that the new Pope should visit Africa and said: “We hope it will take us all to our children on the basis of equality, on the basis that we all belong to God.” They are equal to the view, “according to a report. Associated Press
In late July 2013, during a conversation about the current and long-awaited elections in Zimbabwe, Mugabe, 89, made headlines when asked if he intended to run for re-election in the 2018 elections (this time. It will have 94) The New York Times, to which the president replied: “Why do you want to know my secrets?” According to the Washington Post, Mwagabe’s opponent, Suwanagira v, accused election officials of throwing around 70 70,000 ballots in favor of them that soon appeared.
In early August, the Zimbabwe Election Commission declared Mugabe the winner in the presidential race. According to BBC News, Sugangarai received only 34 percent of the votes and 61 percent of the votes. Tosagarai is expected to initiate a legal challenge against the election results. According to the Guardian newspaper, Susangeirai said the elections “do not reflect the wishes of the people. I do not believe that people in Africa have also committed electoral fraud.”
The arrest of a US citizen
In November 2017, an American woman living in Zimbabwe was accused of ruining the government and insulting the president, or insulting the authority.
According to the prosecution, the defendant, Martha O’Donovan, who is the project coordinator of the activist Magmamba Network, “caused political unrest through the expansion, development and use of a sophisticated social media platform. She tried to execute accounts “. He faces up to 20 years in prison for the charges.The arrests have increased the fear that the Mugabe government is trying to control social networks before the 2018 national elections.
Military acquisition and resignation:
Meanwhile, with the start of a military coup in Zimbabwe, another serious situation was emerging. On November 14, shortly after the expulsion of the vice president of Mugabe, Emerson Mnangagwa, tanks were accumulated in Harare, the capital of the country. Early the next morning, an army spokesman appeared on television to announce that the army was in the process of arresting criminals who were “causing social and economic problems in the country to bring them to justice.” Are “.
The spokesman stressed that this is not a military occupation of the government, said: “We want to assure the nation that the state of the president … At that time, Mugabe was not detected, but later it was confirmed that he was imprisoned in his own home .
The next day, The Herald of Zimbabwe posted photos of the old president in his home, along with other government and military officials. According to reports, the authorities were discussing the implementation of the interim government, although no public statement was made in this regard.
On November 17, a graduation ceremony from the University of Mugabe took place in front of the public, with a riot hidden behind the scenes. After initially refusing to cooperate on plans to expel him from power, the president agreed to announce his retirement during a televised speech on November 19.
However, Mugabe did not mention anything external in his speech, but insisted on presiding over the December congress of the ruling ZANU-PF party. As a result, it was announced that the party would initiate an expedition to take it out of power.
Immediately on November 22, the joint meeting of the Zimbabwean parliament was convened for a voting motion. Later, he read a letter from the accused president. Mugabe wrote: “I have resigned to allow an easy transfer of power.” “Please notify my decision publicly as soon as possible.”
In addition to praise from members of parliament at the end of Mugabe’s 37-year reign, there were also events on the streets of Zimbabwe. According to a spokesman for ZANU-PF, former Vice President Mnangagwa will assume as president and offer Mugabe the rest of the work until the 2018 elections.
Just before the elections of July 30, 2018, Mugabe said that after being expelled by the “party I formed,” he could not support his successor, Manangagwa, and warned that the opposition of the MDC Leader Nelson Chomsa is the only one Presidential candidate. This led to a severe reaction from Mnangagwa, who said: “It is clear to everyone that Chemisa has signed an agreement with Mugabe, we can no longer believe he intends to change Zimbabwe and Our nation is rebuilding.”
The tensions extended during the elections also spread to the public, with protesters who took a violent position that ZANU-PF was declared a parliamentary victory and a Mnangagwa victory. MDC President Morgan Komuchi said his party would question the results in court.