A man carelessly throws a coffee Cup on the platform. A young woman waiting for the train, asking him for his garbage pick up. Then the woman takes a call on her cell phone. A bag of oranges falls Accidentally on the floor. A Daily Life Situation. In fact, US researchers have this scene, in different variations, more than 1600 Times at German railway stations as well as actors re-enact. It is an elaborate open-air experiment on the topic of discrimination.

political scientist Nicholas Sambanis and his Team from the University of Pennsylvania wanted to find out to what extent it depends on the appearance of the woman, if your passers-by, who were not privy to the Experiment, help. A light-skinned, obviously German-born wife gets more support at the orange cancel as a woman whose appearance suggests a migration background and wearing a hijab – a kind of head cloth?

answer: Yes, a little more. The German got in 84 percent of cases, the help of, the woman with hijab in 73 percent, the researchers in the “Proceedings” (PNAS) write to the US national Academy of Sciences. The man was in the played scene, always a light-skinned German. The woman was either a light-skinned German, or had a Turkish, Egyptian, Syrian or Kurdish descent.

knowledge of the language builds a fear of contact from

But what of discrimination depends in this particular everyday situation? To find out, varied the researchers of the actors scene. The woman had warned the man about the discarded Cup, she got generally less support. In the case of a white German in 73 percent of the cases, in the case of a woman with a headscarf in 60 percent of cases.

For the same behavior – reminder of the man or not, was a woman with hijab will always be less support than the white Germans. “We have found that prejudices are more pronounced towards Muslims and not by good civic behavior can be overcome,” said Sambanis. Nevertheless, for the woman with the hijab, the Rebuke of the man had a positive effect: she was then helped in, about as often as a white German, the garbage was on the platform no matter.

Religion plays a larger role than ethnicity

it occurred to the researchers: Did the actress, with roots abroad, open hair, usually in Germany worn clothing and a cross or any religious Symbol, so it was, on average, about the same helpfulness given to how the German actress.

Religion plays in dealing with immigrants is probably a larger role than ethnicity, the researchers concluded. “We found no indication of ethnic discrimination per se”, they write in the study, with a view to your own Experiment. However, the Team Sambanis not asked the passers-by, whether they had helped the woman with hijab in fact, because of their visible adherence to Islam less frequently, or whether other factors played a role, for example, that it was because of your headscarf, a lack of integration will.

“There are certain symbols that indicate foreignness,” says the social psychologist Ulrich Wagner of the University of Marburg, who was not involved in the investigation. “And I would agree that this is at the Moment in Germany, in fact, obvious Muslim affiliation.”

Germany due to many immigrants as a field of experimentation

selected for The evaluation of Wagner, it always comes back, and in very many societies, to the exclusion of people belonging to certain groups. Which group will just be marginalised, depends on political and historical circumstances.

The researchers selected the University of Pennsylvania, according to Germany because of the many immigrants and refugees as a field of experimentation. But also because many Germans tended to view the U.S. researchers to the common social standards, in particular, the love of order.

The experiments were stations in some 30 railway in the German States of North Rhine-Westphalia, Saxony and Brandenburg carried out. In the process, were observed over a period of three weeks in July and August of 2018, a total of 1614 interactions. 7142 bystanders were involved unwittingly.

she / REUTERS topics in this article, discrimination, headscarf, Germany University of Pennsylvania housing search application

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