This article appeared in the star 23/1991 under the title “The blood on your hands”. On the occasion of the anniversary of the last victims of the wall, we publish it again. The contribution gives the knowledge from the spring of 1991.
The order to shoot: at Least 209 people are trying to escape across the inner-German bordered to the West between 1961 and 1989, shot, or of mines and self-shot plants have been killed. The Berlin justice wants to pull apart the political leaders now also the individual death to be accountable. 38 are already known by name. The star spoke with the border guards, which have made the last fatal shots at the Berlin wall, and still excellent.
could be, would be. Would, could. Would … would … could … Mike Sch. is 26 years old. He might be a happier person: Nice wife, two little boys, six and four years old, neat and tidy apartment in a Dresden new area, a good Job as a router. Since one and a half years, he may select whom he pleases, and go where he wants. Mike Sch. could his life be happy. If it is not again and again these tormenting thoughts home searched, all of which begin with:. Would be. Could.
Would have chosen this Boy, however, only one other escape route … I Would be on this evening, just not with it … Could I make the boy alive again … And then this horrible dream that repeats itself again, short and intense, and always the same. “I see the flashing alarm light on the border, and how the red glow in the metal lattice fence.” That’s all. Then wakes up Sch. sweat flooded and the night lives once again from the 5. on the 6. February 1989, in which he, the corporal, the border troops of the GDR, young people mitgetötet and his own life has made a mess of.
Chris Gueffroy wanted to see the world
Chris Gueffroy was 20 years old and had a big dream: to get out of this narrow, stuffy country as far as had travelled, who had made a beach holiday at lake Balaton. Chris wanted to go to America. On 5. February, 1989, Chris and his friend Christian G., 21 o’clock on in the direction of the wall. In Berlin-Treptow, you want to swim across the Teltow canal to the West. The night is cold, just a degree above Zero. Chris and Christian seals about two hours at the controls, passing through allotments, to overcome the first, three meters high, the “inner security wall”, run through the barrier with a trip wire to the ditch in front of the last fence. All of a sudden it is daylight. Call: “Stop! Stand still!” It’s 23.39 PM. The two races more. Shots pop, whole volleys. On the fence Chris makes his friend a “boost”. Again Shots. From.
district of Mitte
walkers discover new piece of the Berlin wall
almost 30 years Ago, the Berlin wall fell, but still don’t seem to all the sections detected. A new piece of walkers in the district is noticed in the middle. It is said to have contributed as part of the run-up to the backup wall to secure the actual wall.
Christian G. is lucky in misfortune: He is only hit in the right foot. In may 1989, an East German sentenced him-court to three years in prison for attempted escape from the Republic in a severe case. Chris Gueffroy has ripped a shot to the heart muscle. He dies, according to the death certificate, on 6. February to 0.20 PM. The 20-year-old waiter is three-quarters of a year before the fall of the Berlin wall, the last victims of the inner German border – and killed by men, only a little older than he, of the border guards, Andreas K., Ingo H, Peter S. and Mike Sch.
together, dropped Mike Sch sits. in his living room armchair, the face is ashen, and describes how he is this evening of the 5. February has experienced. He had seen with his comrades, Ingo H. from the guard tower at the Britzer Allee from the truck with the replacement and on the way down, when suddenly the alarm light was blinking. Because Sh knew., his great desire had burst: the one and a half years of service at the border without a “serious case” through. He knew that “border violators” had touched the trip-wire. And he knew that he had to stop them by all means.
The alarm light flashed red, which meant that the refugees were in the guard section next door, at the border post “road 16” pushed where Andreas K. and Peter S. service. Mike Sch.: “As we come out of the tower, calls the items of the p. “Stop, limit, stop!” and gives a warning shot. We had to stay in such a case, in our wax range, but since the two men were carefully oblique. Running the cutter.” K. and p. shot, K.’s Kalashnikov on automatic fire. Nevertheless, the refugees reached the fence to the wire grid. And then Mike Sch said. the words, of which he is ashamed of today, he is involved in a prosecution: “Now we have to shoot, otherwise you are gone.”
Stasi managed to bring on the Berlin wall aside,
Mike Sch. the post was a leader, was allowed to Ingo H. commands. He does not know whether be would have fired a subordinate, even without the prompt. He can’t even say why he pulled the trigger himself, though he had his gun already in Hand. He knows only: Ingo H. scored. And the man that had formed at the fence, a “robber ladder”, slumped to the ground.
division of Germany
Today, the Berlin wall is just gone for so long, as you
for 28 years, two months and 26 days Germany was divided by the Berlin wall. Exactly how long has it been now, that the fall of the wall put the whole Republic in a frenzy of joy. The Ostbeauftrage Iris Gleicke nevertheless sees large pent-up demand in the former Eastern region.
How many people wanted towers built between August 1961 and November 1989 in the West, at about 1,900-Kilometer-long demarcation line between the GDR and the Federal Republic of soldiers were shot, or in the mine fields were killed – one knows at least exactly: Erich Honecker. The ruler of the GDR received up to the last detail message about any of the dead to his “anti-fascist protection wall”. But the Supreme Republic of a refugee is silent in his Moscow exile. And already all of the files haven’t showed up yet.
78 Dead should have it at the Berlin wall, and a further 131 along the GDR border. The dark figure is probably much higher. Because the Stasi, whose “administration 2000” was looking for every by force of arms prevented the border breakthrough and evaluated, was to cover up where it was. So the intelligence officers In to the left formations, the presence of the star, in 1987, two men were shot from the West go unnoticed – in – the-wall, hidden in a Berlin crematorium to be burned. These two dead appeared, up to today, in any victim statistics.
in the Meantime, the Berlin-based “working group-a government crime” in 153 cases against border guards, the refugees are injured or killed, some additional procedures are at the public Prosecutor’s offices of various German Federal States pending. 38 death of the Berlin judiciary to protect known by name. Mike Sch. and his three comrades.
in the course of this year, says justice spokeswoman Jutta Burghart, hope the public Prosecutor’s office, “the investigation in one or other case complete”. In the case of a conviction, a term of imprisonment of not less than five years for manslaughter, threatening the perpetrators. Is arrested, however, still none.
Honecker’s accomplices in the shooting command, the former SED-sizes Hans Albrecht, Heinz Kessler, Erich Mielke, Willi Stoph, and Fritz Streletz sitting since the beginning of last week, is in custody. Detention reason: incitement to manslaughter.
at The wrong time in the wrong place?
The news of the arrests, acknowledged Mike Sch. with a shrug of the shoulders. What good will it do to him that now, at last, to actually be responsible for the killings be held accountable? He must continue to live with the (Self-)accusation, to be a “wall-killer”, because he has given a command.
Mike Sch. is perpetrators, but also victims of the regime, the men, women and young people left to shoot, the just wanted to from one country to the other. Mike Sch. says he’s been “broken”. He just had more bad luck than most of his comrades: He was standing just at the wrong time in the wrong place.
Stasi, CIA, Mossad and co.
How to secret services in Germany, people kidnap
The abduction of a Vietnamese from Germany brings light on the shady dealings of agents – including the Federal Republic of Germany was again the scene of disappearances.
By Kerstin Herrnkind
The madness had method, from the very beginning. A document underlying the warrant for the arrest of Erich Honecker, proves that he had already ordered a month after the closure of the border to shoot at fleeing citizens of the GDR. In the “Protocol on the location of the meeting of the Central rod at the 20.09.1961” under the Heading “Gen. Honecker summarizes the results of the consultation and arranges to” the inhuman sentences: “8. Against traitors and border violators, the shot is effective weapon. Such measures are to be taken, that criminals can be put in the 100 m exclusion zone. Observation and field of fire is in the restricted zone.”
at this time, the first in East Berlin, of course, already since the 13th century. August barricaded and strictly guarded border between the two German States died. 24. August tried to swim Günter Litfin, the Humboldt harbour to the Western shore. Just before he reached his target, was shot and killed the 24-Year-old.
The last renewal of the firing command comes from the year 1974. On 3. May the members of the National defence Council met between 10 and 12.15 o’clock in the Ministry of defense in Strausberg, to your 45. Session. In the debate, it says in the “Secret command matter” (GKdos no.: 19/74) classified and Honecker signed the meeting Protocol, “presented to comrade Erich Honecker, the following points: … anywhere (to the border protection systems, d. Red.) must be guaranteed a perfect shot … still needs to be made in the case of a border breach attempt of the firearm reckless Use, and commend the Comrades who have used the gun successfully.”
“It was like a game, such as sports lessons,”
“was The report and the oral presentation taking into account the remarks of Comrade Erich Honecker,” it says, “the full consent given.” The fact of the accusation “incitement to manslaughter” against Albrecht, Kessler, Mielke, Stoph and Streletz is based.
wall-Gedekstätte is extended
The memorial for the victims of the Berlin wall will be extended. An exhibition area will complement the Area of the Bernauer Straße.
to make A written statement to the troops “reckless use of his weapon”, has never existed. That was the GDR rulers too risky. They are afraid to be caught. Because again and again even soldiers, took classified documents to the “other side” – piled. Even the service provision 018/0/008 of 5. August 1974 on the “application of the border troops to secure the state border – the use of the firearm” was distributed only in 3524 copies of higher-ranking officers. “The use of the firearm”, says the paper, “is, in principle, with “Stop! The border post! Hands up!” to announce. The request is not complied with, to issue a warning shot. Also this warning is unsuccessful, conduct aimed fire.” The Rangers were drilled, among other things, on the Bössel, a mountain in Suhl.
There were military in the beginning of the eighties, a mile-long section of the border faithfully according to the original. “It was like a game, as a sport teaching”, describes an Ex-officer of the students ‘ teaching practice. The Best of the vintage were dressed in black jumpsuits, Republic of refugees mimes. Of the trainers, you received instructions, if you stay after the first warning shot, or should continue to run. The hunters had a clear mission: to provide the refugee, in any case, dead or alive. Very realistic as to the right border. With a big difference: On the Bössel shot you with blanks. At the end of the macabre staging of the apprentices received notes. The former officer students: “If the Situation required, and you didn’t shoot, there was a Five. It has instilled in us a System that triggers in the case of an emergency.”
Mike Sch. had to in November 1987 the army. He came in troops to the border, didn’t appeal to him, but he could do nothing. Position command position command. As it is a supervisor asked if he could shoot at people, replied Mike Sch. honest: “I don’t know.”
“Then it’s the end”
keep On the Golf course in Germen village, he learned the Address of a border infringer, the contraction of the guards, the arrest. Geschossen was only on the shooting range, with the Kalashnikov, during the day, when the sun is low, in the dark, and Mike Sch. was a pretty lousy shot.
After half a year he was transferred to Berlin-Treptow, for the guard to slide on the wall. There, he learned that the stock anywhere from concrete, but partially made of a metal mesh fence. And he learned what was the order to shoot – not a formal statement, but a sentence from the mouth of the superiors: “If you notice, you will get him then it’s the end of you.”
fall of the Berlin wall
Berlin celebrates fall of the Berlin wall with a “border of Light” – parts
thousands of glowing balloons, which had been placed along the former Berlin wall, stolen, have ascended in the evening sky. Previously have to create the rioters and thieves.
of Course, you have entertain yourself in the comrade circle of the shoot in the “serious case”. They all hoped to hit only the legs. But did you know that it would be in the dark and at a distance, and in the excitement, very difficult.
And in addition shoot? Or not shoot? That would have been a serious breach of the regulations, threatened with penalties. It began with blame and ended with “Schwedt”. The Name of the military prison was not a deterrent. For not shooting it would have been a lot of “Schwedt”. Now the Shooters have to reckon with a prison sentence for a crime that they have brought before two years in prison.
While Mike Sch. his inner torment is revealed, and block the others, Ingo H., Andreas K. and Peter S.. You are now, as well as Sch. of the Berlin Kripo was heard, and prefer to remain silent. K., a slim man with short blond hair, snapping: “do you Want to harass me about”? Peter S., 26, milker by profession, is completely beaten and only says two phrases: “On 9. November, I thought to myself: Now, can get very angry.” And: “I expect the Worst.”
Ingo H., 25, carpenter, repeatedly for a half hour stereotype the phrase: “I say first in front of the court again.” His wife stands next to him in the hallway. She says quietly: “we earlier asked, how it comes to us, and not now. We had to be quite alone.” By H.’s ball Chris G. is believed to have been killed.
“Then we made a normal arrest,” says Mike Sch. the minutes after the shooting. He acts as though he had to hold on to this Textbook-phrase, to tilt with the head on the table. Later, after Chris Gueffroy and Christian G. are removed, Sch. and the three other Rangers of their weapons. Officers are in control of the Magazine, and count the remaining cartridges. Mike Sch. will not be asked why he had shot. He doesn’t know it, is in shock, is “completely finished”.
forced adoption in the GDR
After an anonymous phone call to let a mother the grave of her daughter open
40 years Ago, Christa Steenvoordens daughter died in the bathtub of her grandparents. Your body never saw it. An exhumation is to create certainty. However, the authorities Stonewall. Juliane might still be alive?
What then comes, disgusts him. “One or two days of special leave and the power badge, associated with a premium of 150 marks of the GDR.” He has only “sick of it”. To not know it at the time, Chris Gueffroy, is dead. He learns only later, and rather casually by a sub-officer.
As his superiors realize that Sch. never pull out the gun, let alone shoot, put him in a training unit. In April 1989, he is dismissed from the service. And now, this recurring dream is because the red alert signal, the Sch. worse than the thought of ten or fifteen years in jail. “And if, in television, anything about the border coming back,” he says, “then I sit and bibbere. I’m scared that people show on the road with his fingers on me. But most of all, I’m afraid that my wife and my sons would have to suffer.”
A couple of Times, Mike Sch. ponders whether he should write to Chris Gueffroys mother a letter. He regrets very much, even more than the son who had finally known what could happen to him in the border area. He has left it. He wants, says Mike Sch., the woman pollute more, more, more. But he knows that this is just an excuse. In truth, he is ashamed of so much that he would find no words. Karin Gueffroy, the mother of Chris, has no sympathy with the “wall-murderers”. “They could shoot,” she says, “next to it. Then you would have maybe four weeks in jail. And what four weeks are against life?”
note 2019: The triggerman was sentenced after the fall of the wall, ultimately, to a suspended sentence. He had stood in the hierarchy at the very bottom. The rest of the border guards were spoken after the Revision of the Federal court of justice.
After Gueffroy in 1989 yet another victim of, in connection with the Berlin wall. On 8. March crashed a 32-Year-old with a self-built balloon in Berlin-Zehlendorf, after he had already overcome the GDR border.
In Berlin, died after the wall went up, from 13. In August 1961, according to scientific findings, at least 140 people by the GDR border regime. In a study, according to the German-German border, at least 327 people were killed, were the last to come in doubt. Parts of the completed research project should be reviewed.
At the scene of the crime in Berlin, a memorial to Chris Gueffroy. (DPA)